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Pentium Xeon Processor

Xeon (/ˈziːɒn/ ZEE-on) is a brand of x86 microprocessors designed, manufactured, and marketed by Intel, targeted at the non-consumer workstation, server, and embedded system markets. It was introduced in June 1998. Xeon processors are based on the same architecture as regular desktop-grade CPUs, but have advanced features such as support for ECC memory, higher core counts, more PCI Express lanes, support for larger amounts of RAM, larger cache memory and extra provision for enterprise-grade reliability, availability and serviceability (RAS) features responsible for handling hardware exceptions through the Machine Check Architecture. They are often capable of safely continuing execution where a normal processor cannot due to these extra RAS features, depending on the type and severity of the machine-check exception (MCE). Some also support multi-socket systems with two, four, or eight sockets through use of the Ultra Path Interconnect (UPI) bus.

pentium xeon processor


The Xeon brand has been maintained over several generations of IA-32 and x86-64 processors. Older models added the Xeon moniker to the end of the name of their corresponding desktop processor, but more recent models used the name Xeon on its own. The Xeon CPUs generally have more cache than their desktop counterparts in addition to multiprocessing capabilities.

Some shortcomings that make Xeon processors unsuitable for most consumer-grade desktop PCs include lower clock rates at the same price point (since servers run more tasks in parallel than desktops, core counts are more important than clock rates), and usually lacks an integrated graphics processing unit (GPU). Processor models prior to Sapphire Rapids-WS lacks support for overclocking (with the exception of Xeon W-3175X). Despite such disadvantages, Xeon processors have always had popularity among some desktop users (video editors and other power users), mainly due to higher core count potential, and higher performance to price ratio vs. the Core i7 in terms of total computing power of all cores. Since most Intel Xeon CPUs lack an integrated GPU, systems built with those processors require a discrete graphics card or a separate GPU if computer monitor output is desired.[4]

Intel Xeon is a distinct product line from the similarly-named Intel Xeon Phi. The first-generation Xeon Phi is a completely different type of device more comparable to a graphics card; it is designed for a PCI Express slot and is meant to be used as a multi-core coprocessor, like the Nvidia Tesla. In the second generation, Xeon Phi evolved into a main processor more similar to the Xeon. It conforms to the same socket as a Xeon processor and is x86-compatible; however, as compared to Xeon, the design point of the Xeon Phi emphasizes more cores with higher memory bandwidth.

The first Xeon-branded processor was the Pentium II Xeon (code-named "Drake"). It was released in 1998, replacing the Pentium Pro in Intel's server lineup. The Pentium II Xeon was a "Deschutes" Pentium II (and shared the same product code: 80523) with a full-speed 512 kB (1 kB = 1024 B), 1 MB (1 MB = 1024 kB = 10242 B), or 2 MB L2 cache. The L2 cache was implemented with custom 512 kB SRAMs developed by Intel. The number of SRAMs depended on the amount of cache. A 512 kB configuration required one SRAM, a 1 MB configuration: two SRAMs, and a 2 MB configuration: four SRAMs on both sides of the PCB. Each SRAM was a 12.90 mm by 17.23 mm (222.21 mm2) die fabricated in a 0.35 µm four-layer metal CMOS process and packaged in a cavity-down wire-bonded land grid array (LGA).[5] The additional cache required a larger module and thus the Pentium II Xeon used a larger slot, Slot 2. It was supported by the 440GX dual-processor workstation chipset and the 450NX quad- or octo-processor chipset.

The second version, named "Cascades", was based on the Pentium III "Coppermine" core. The "Cascades" Xeon used a 133 MHz bus and relatively small 256 kB on-die L2 cache resulting in almost the same capabilities as the Slot 1 Coppermine processors, which were capable of dual-processor operation but not quad-processor operation.

At most two Foster processors could be accommodated in a symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) system built with a mainstream chipset, so a second version (Foster MP) was introduced with a 1 MB L3 cache and the Jackson Hyper-Threading capacity. This improved performance slightly, but not enough to lift it out of third place. It was also priced much higher than the dual-processor (DP) versions. The Foster shared the 80528 product code with Willamette.

In 2002 Intel released a 130 nm version of Xeon branded CPU, codenamed "Prestonia". It supported Intel's new Hyper-Threading technology and had a 512 kB L2 cache. This was based on the "Northwood" Pentium 4 core. A new server chipset, E7500 (which allowed the use of dual-channel DDR SDRAM), was released to support this processor in servers, and soon the bus speed was boosted to 533 MT/s (accompanied by new chipsets: the E7501 for servers and the E7505 for workstations). The Prestonia performed much better than its predecessor and noticeably better than Athlon MP. The support of new features in the E75xx series also gave it a key advantage over the Pentium III Xeon and Athlon MP branded CPUs (both stuck with rather old chipsets), and it quickly became the top-selling server/workstation processor.

Due to a lack of success with Intel's Itanium and Itanium 2 processors, AMD was able to introduce x86-64, a 64-bit extension to the x86 architecture. Intel followed suit by including Intel 64 (formerly EM64T; it is almost identical to AMD64) inthe 90 nm version of the Pentium 4 ("Prescott"), and a Xeon version codenamed "Nocona" with 1 MB L2 cache was released in 2004. Released with it were the E7525 (workstation), E7520 and E7320 (both server) chipsets, which added support for PCI Express, DDR-II and Serial ATA. The Xeon was noticeably slower than AMD's Opteron, although it could be faster in situations where Hyper-Threading came into play.

A slightly updated core called "Irwindale" was released in early 2005, with 2 MB L2 cache and the ability to have its clock speed reduced during low processor demand. Although it was a bit more competitive than the Nocona had been, independent tests showed that AMD's Opteron still outperformed Irwindale. Both of these Prescott-derived Xeons have the product code 80546.

On March 14, 2006, Intel released a dual-core processor codenamed Sossaman and branded as Xeon LV (low-voltage). Subsequently, an ULV (ultra-low-voltage) version was released. The Sossaman was a low-/ultra-low-power and double-processor capable CPU (like AMD Quad FX), based on the "Yonah" processor, for ultradense non-consumer environment (i.e., targeted at the blade-server and embedded markets), and was rated at a thermal design power (TDP) of 31 W (LV: 1.66 GHz, 2 GHz and 2.16 GHz) and 15 W (ULV: 1.66 GHz).[9] As such, it supported most of the same features as earlier Xeons: Virtualization Technology, 667 MT/s front side bus, and dual-core processing, but did not support 64-bit operations, so it could not run 64-bit server software, such as Microsoft Exchange Server 2007, and therefore was limited to 16 GB of memory. A planned successor, codenamed "Merom MP" was to be a drop-in upgrade to enable Sossaman-based servers to upgrade to 64-bit capability. However, this was abandoned in favour of low-voltage versions of the Woodcrest LV processor leaving the Sossaman at a dead-end with no upgrade path.

The 3000 series, codenamed Conroe (product code 80557) dual-core Xeon (branded) CPU,[10] released at the end of September 2006, was the first Xeon for single-CPU operation. The same processor is branded as Core 2 Duo or as Pentium Dual-Core and Celeron, with varying features disabled.They use LGA 775 (Socket T), operate on a 1066 MHz front-side bus, support Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology and Intel Virtualization Technology but do not support Hyper-Threading. Conroe Processors with a number ending in "5" have a 1333 MT/s FSB.[11]

The 3100 series, codenamed Wolfdale (product code 80570) dual-core Xeon (branded) CPU, was just a rebranded version of the Intel's mainstream Core 2 Duo E7000/E8000 and Pentium Dual-Core E5000 processors, featuring the same 45 nm process and 6 MB of L2 cache. Unlike most Xeon processors, they only support single-CPU operation. They use LGA 775 (Socket T), operate on a 1333 MHz front-side bus, support Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology and Intel Virtualization Technology but do not support Hyper-Threading.

On June 26, 2006, Intel released the dual-core CPU (Xeon branded 5100 series) codenamed Woodcrest (product code 80556); it was the first Intel Core microarchitecture processor to be launched on the market. It is a server and workstation version of the Intel Core 2 processor. Intel claimed that it provides an 80% boost in performance, while reducing power consumption by 20% relative to the Pentium D.

Most models have a 1333 MT/s FSB, except for the 5110 and 5120, which have a 1066 MT/s FSB. The fastest processor (5160) operates at 3.0 GHz. All Woodcrest processors use the LGA 771 socket and all except two models have a TDP of 65 W. The 5160 has a TDP of 80 W and the 5148LV (2.33 GHz) has a TDP of 40 W. The previous generation Xeons had a TDP of 130 W. All models support Intel 64 (Intel's x86-64 implementation), the XD bit, and Virtualization Technology, with the Demand-based switching power management option only on Dual-Core Xeon 5140 or above. Woodcrest has 4 MB of shared L2 Cache.

The 7200 series, codenamed Tigerton (product code 80564) is an MP-capable processor, similar to the 7300 series, but, in contrast, only one core is active on each silicon chip and the other one is disabled, resulting in a dual-core processor.[15][16][17][18] 041b061a72

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